Topics covered in this chapter include
  • The digital divide
  • What is the digital divide?
  • Digital capital
  • Theoretical access versus effective access
  • Digital participation
  • Social inclusion
For more detail, read Chapter 5 of Using Social Media in the Classroom. A best practice guide.

Further reading
  • Dornisch, M. (2013) The digital divide in classrooms: teacher technology comfort and evaluations, Computers in the Schools, 30(3), 210–228.
  • Hatlevik, O. E. and Gudmundsdottir, G. B. (2013) An emerging digital divide in urban school children’s information literacy: Challenging equity in the Norwegian school system. First Monday, 18 (4). Retrieved from
  • Jenkins, H. (2006) Confronting the challenges of participatory culture. Media education for the 21st century. Retrieved from
  • Lim, C. P., Zhao, Y., Tondeur, J., Chai, C. S., and Tsai, C. C. (2013). Bridging the gap: technology trends and use of technology in schools, Journal of Educational Technology and Society, 16(2), 59–68.
  • Pantea, S. and Martens, B. (2013) Has the digital divide been reversed? Evidence from five EU countries. European Commission. Retrieved from
  • Walker, L., and Logan, A. (2009) Using digital technologies to promote inclusive practices in education. Futurelab handbook. Retrieved from
  • Welch, M. M. and Dooley, C. M. (2013) Are your students really participating? Learning and Leading with Technology, 40(7), 28–30.