Topics covered in this chapter include

  • The ‘digital natives’ debate
  • New learning
  • The Digital Revolution
  • Industrial-model schooling
  • Why do we need ‘new learning’?
  • Curriculum issues
  • Digital literacy
  • What is digital literacy?
  • Functional, network, and critical digital literacy: towards
  • a holistic understanding of digital literacy
  • How digitally literate are our students?
  • Students’ experiences with using digital technologies in formal learning


For more detail, read Chapter 4 of Using Social Media in the Classroom. A best practice guide.

Further reading

  • Bostrom, N. (2007) Technological revolutions: ethics and policy in the dark, in N. M. de S. Cameron and M. E. Mitchell (eds), Nanoscale: Issues and Perspectives for the Nano Century. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley. pp. 129–52.
  • Hinrichsen, J. and Coombs, A. (2014) The five resources of critical digital literacy: a framework for curriculum integration, Research in Learning Technology, 21(4).
  • Hoover, E. (2009) The Millennial muddle: how stereotyping students became a thriving industry and a bundle of contradictions, The Chronicle of Higher Education, 11 October 2009. Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/article/The-Millennial-Muddle-How/48772/.
  • Kong, S. C., Chan, T.-W., Griffin, P., Hoppe, U., Huang, R., Kinshuk, Looi, C. K., Milrad, M., Norris, C., Nussbaum, M., Sharples, M., So, W. M. W., Soloway, E., and Yu, S. (2014) E-learning in school education in the coming 10 years for developing 21st century skills: critical research issues and policy implications, Educational Technology and Society, 17(1), 70–78.
  • Nowell, S. D. (2014) Using disruptive technologies to make digital connections: stories of media use and digital literacy in secondary classrooms, Educational Media International, 51(2), 109–123.
  • Ortlieb, E. and Marinak, B. A. (2013) Surveying digital literacy use and motivation in elementary school students, Basic Research Journal of Education Research and Review, 2(5), 81–88.
  • Powell, D. (2013) Learning space: perspectives on technology and literacy in a changing educational landscape, Journal of Literacy and Technology, 14(2).